Comparative hemorheology, in Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics, eds. O. K. Baskurt, M. R. Hardeman, M. W. Rampling, and. Article · January. Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. significantly contribute to hemorheological variations in diseases and in certain extreme physiological properties. KEYWORDS: Hemorheology, hemodynamics, viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, Handbook of Engineering. New York.
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The rates of blood flow through the blood vessels depend on many physical factors, including the diameters, lengths and other geometric features of the vessels, their mechanical properties, the structures of networks that they form, the pressure generated by the heart to drive the flow, and the rheological properties of the blood.
In vivo RBC aggregation occurs at low shear forces or stasis and is a major determinant of low shear blood viscosity and thus in hemorheolkgy flow dynamics . IOS Press- Medical – pages. Hemodynamisc present, there are two co-existing models for RBC aggregation: All of these factors are themselves subject to variation according to a number of short-term and long-term biological control mechanisms.
As a guest user you are not logged in or recognized by your IP address. It has become increasingly recognized that adhesion is constrained by the local hemodynamic environment and modulated by the rheological properties of the blood. In analyzing blood flows, one is generally interested in how the blood responds to forces e.
The elastic deformability of cells means that energy can be stored in and recovered from cell deformation.
Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics – Google Books
Using his home-made microscopes he also noticed the phenomenon of reversible red cell aggregation in relation to slow and stagnant in vivo blood flow . Mechanisms of Blood Rheology Alterations. The circulation continues to show marked changes with growth and further organ differentiation during infancy and childhood.
Leblond in an early, textbook of hemorheology, hyperviscosity syndromes were discussed from a pathophysiological point of view : Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics loading However, platelet adhesion is possible in all vessels in order to inhibit blood loss, and can occur in arteries at much higher shear rates and stresses.
Sections of the Handbook include History of Hemorheology; Hemorheology, covering basic aspects, blood composition, blood rheology, cell mechanics, pathophysiology, methods and comparative studies; Hemodynamics, covering basic principles, microcirculation, in vivo effects, endothelium and methods; and Clinical Aspects of Hemorheology, covering hyperviscosity, clinical significance and treatment.
While the resistance to flow spans nearly five decades as blood courses its way from arteriole to venule, the large scatter in the experimental data may reflect significant departures from the flow of a Newtonian fluid through a smooth walled tube of circular cross-section. Even moderate hemolysis, which is not an immediate threat to renal function, is an important warning sign of other potential blood cell damage such as platelet activation, white blood cell WBC dysfunction, and other serious complications such as scavenging of nitric oxide , damage to glycocalyx and endothelial cells, and impairment of the vascular smooth muscle tone .
Description This publication primarily focuses on the macro- and micro-rheological behavior of blood and its formed elements, on interactions between the formed elements and blood vessel walls, and on the microvascular aspects of hemodynamics.
Compositional Properties of Blood. Sections of the Handbook include History of Hemorheology; Hemorheology, covering basic aspects, blood composition, blood rheology, cell mechanics, pathophysiology, methods and comparative studies; Hemodynamics, covering basic principles, microcirculation, in vivo effects, endothelium and methods; and Clinical Aspects of Hemorheology, covering hyperviscosity, clinical significance and treatment.
Ebook: Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics
Although damage to platelets and WBC is an extremely important topic, this chapter concentrates on the mechanical trauma to RBC and related changes in rheological properties of whole blood.
Blood viscosity expressed as apparent viscosity i. Flow-based studies have revealed that in each case, leukocytes and platelets use a multi-step process to achieve controlled recruitment [2, 3]. Broadly, specialized receptors support capture of fast-moving cells, separate receptors support stable attachment, and activating signals are required for transition between the states.
In healthy humans, RBC survive for about days in the circulation, whereas in certain pathological conditions where membrane stability, cellular deformability or adhesiveness are compromised, the lifespan of the RBC can be dramatically reduced or its function severely compromised, often with severe clinical manifestations.
Furthermore, the blood must circulate above a limiting rate if it is to do its work effectively enough to keep the organism healthy.
Thus, enhanced RBC aggregation may not always be related to plasma composition changes, but can co-exist with plasma viscosity alterations. It is necessary to know hemorheologgy the hemorheological profile of an animal cannot be judged by a single rheological value, but must be considered as part of the cardiovascular system in which the blood is flowing.
Finally, some general practical hemorheological laboratory techniques are described. Abstract The circulatory system consists of a pump the heart and an extensive, highly branching system of tubes blood vessels containing a fluid blood with specialized capabilities for the transport of oxygen, nutrients, many other substances and heat. The experiments underlying this formulation were conducted using simple fluids and the viscosity concept was introduced in the equation as a constant, being directly proportional to flow resistance.
In selecting topics for this handbook the editors have attempted to provide a general overview of both basic science and clinical hemorheology and hemodynamics. Abstract In analyzing blood flows, one is generally interested in how the blood responds to forces e.
IOS Press Ebooks – Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics
Blood Rheology Aspects of the Microcirculation. The safety and efficacy of these blood-contacting biomedical devices strongly depends on the extent to which they damage blood.
This early understanding of blood rheology that dominated the first several decades of 20 th century was clearly described in the famous publication of Whittaker and Winton . The differences between apparent viscosity values measured in vivo and ex vivo were more prominent at higher hematocrit values .
In order to understand this system, it is helpful to start by considering the mechanics of fluid flow through a single tube with a uniform cylindrical cross-section.
The editors hemodynammics the handbook have each been active in the fields of bio- and hemorheology for many years, and have published extensively.